5 авг. 2010 г.
27 янв. 2010 г.
It looks like no one I think Alferov charlatan.
One of the most controversial figures in Russia Academy of Sciences, Vice President RAS Jaures Alferov. All his life he was no scholar, and "a prominent organizer of Soviet science." This title is entitled to respect, but it should not be confused with the phrase "world-class scientists." This is completely different activities, which require dissimilar talents. Nevertheless Jaures Alferov spoke on behalf of the corporation real investigators, supposedly protecting their interests. And since "phenomenon Alferov" is growing to the scale of social phenomena, is to look into it more closely.
Numerous television and print interviews Alferov public perceives as the voice of the scientific elite, which contributes significantly to the mention of the Nobel Prize, prirosshee to the name of academician. Meanwhile, povraschavshis from His Physico-Technical Institute of St. Petersburg, it is easy to find out that the scientific contribution of academician in the collective work, for which Alferov received the most prestigious international award, is minimal. Academician was the team leader and as such played an organizer and administrator of works that have met Garbuzov, Tretyakov (that's what really Fizteha legend!), Andreev, Kazarinov and Portnoy. The first three received the state award, the latter two received nothing, and Academician Alferov went to Stockholm and to write his name in the annals of world science .
75-year-old Jaures Ivanovich age can not lead the Mathematics and Physics. But the power in the Institute for him a matter of principle. PhysTech gets maximum budget financing, and their distribution - the real source of influence Alferov at the institute, where he was actively dislike and Sciences, where his side. In order to remain at the helm, Alferov built a complex structure of the four state unitary enterprises, each of which has its own legal entity. This is, firstly, the Physical-Technical Institute named after Ioffe - the largest of organizations Alferov, secondly, SEC Center for Microelectronics and Submicron Heterostructures, relatively modest size, and thirdly, svezheotstroenny Scientific and Educational Complex (NOC) on the street Khlopina, 8 and, fourthly, the physical-technical school, which was recently transferred to the building of the NOC. All this construction, in turn, merged into a sort of "holding" with the general academic council and the president. They call the president Jaures Alferov.
Jaures Ivanovich appointed by the President himself, but as leader to execute him too busy. After talking with scientists, we can see that PhysTech not actually managed. Offices and laboratories have their own life, which is good in terms of freedom of creativity and research initiative, but it is absolutely contraindicated if the State intends to carry out major research projects with the calculated economic benefit. Norilsk Nickel sold copiers work a decade ago that led to the righteous anger of metallurgists, to terminate the contract. And when Minatom ordered for its center in Snezhinsk (RFATS VNIITF) cultivation technology for the LED structures, atomic scientists were developing, in which no LEDs fail. The result was the same as with Nornikel: money taken, but the useful effect of zero. It turns out that major technologies suitable for commercialization, the FTI is not. In what state invests the money?
The answer is simple: budget funds pumped into the pockets of merchants from science. The territory Fizteha are many small companies that use the area, premises and equipment state institute for commercial development. Directs staff Fizteha, which in the activities of their companies develop a profit for themselves, but without any benefit for the institute are the same areas, which are paid by the state. This business is profitable and competitive point of view. Entrepreneurs from PTI did not pay for utilities and rent, do not bear any expenditure on research and development, not making the VAT for purchase of equipment. They only sell manufacture of test samples, obviously dempinguya. Which is interesting, very PTI not to fall from this trade penny. Head of Lab explained that the cost (budget!) Until excess profits (diverging in the pockets), but because the main supplier of financial resources must remain the state. Set the real value of turnover businessmen Fizteha difficult - not checks RAS activity FTI, and it would be strange if the Vice President RAS Jaures Alferov has initiated such a test.
Indecent story with the award itself prize "Global Energy" in 2005 (bonus fund - $ 1 million) made to recoil from Jaures Alferov RAS President Yuri Osipov. May 25 exquisitely polite letter he put Alferov advised that the resignation as a member of the Advisory Board of the Global Energy Prize "in connection" with the heavy workload at work. " But dedicated clear that the sudden increase in "congestion" is caused by a natural desire to make it clear to the scientific community that the decision to Alferov's Fund Osipov not involved. Prize awarded for work in the field of solar energy - known in the world, for example, the name of PTI Andreeva working in this field. But no one had heard about the outstanding contribution Alferova in solar energy. Perhaps this is something heard the son of Academician Ivan Zhoresovich Alferov, managing the distribution of money Alferov's Fund. When journalists piterskogo "Channel Five" inquired where Jaures Ivanovich go away his million, the academician explained that he was going to buy equipment for its scientific and educational complex. Let us dwell on this subject a little more detail.
In the modern and spacious building of scientific and educational complex of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences of FTNOTS Fizteha transported all the best and workable equipment. The operation to free transfer of valuable property from one legal entity to another is questionable from a legal point of view, but even more curious, why is it needed? It seems FTI im. Joffe, stripping the instrument base, completely written off and turned into a conglomerate of tenants. Graduate Institute of that rank will not be privatized, so the lack of attention to his old office manager is understandable from a material point of view. In addition to all the secrets of the Institute has long had access well-known business predator Samsung, has created a joint laboratory with the FTI. Employees PTI regularly leave to work in a Korean concern, using the intellectual potential and deliverables Fizteha for the benefit of "Far Eastern tiger. So in terms of scientific know-how PhysTech too little attractive. But the building of the NOC, along with valuable equipment svezennym there may well fall into the privatization list Rosimushchestvo. The institute so directly and say: "Jaures Ivanovich prepares for privatization."
© "Novye Izvestia (Moscow), 30.06.2005
Minister Andrei Fursenko offers separate property of science today at a meeting of the government will consider increasing the efficiency of public sector science in which the keynote speaker, Minister of Education and Science Andrei Fursenko.
The Minister proposes to establish clear criteria for the appropriateness of the research, working to reduce wasted scientific organizations, increasing at the expense of funding for the way forward. In addition, the Ministry of Education sees fit to put under state control revenues guidance of Sciences of the real estate management.
As the number of researchers Russia ranks first in the world. However, neither this nor the Nobel Prize that happened in Russia Academy of Sciences, where the average salary of employees does not exceed 7000 rubles, was no longer able to maintain the prestige of Russia's science, even in the eyes of its own citizens.
A special study on this topic recently conducted in 44 major cities of the Fund "Public opinion". It turned out that the activities of the Academy approves only 40% of respondents. A year ago this figure was at 61%.
Confirms the validity of such pessimism, and global statistics. On the efficiency of innovation policy, our country is now 69-th place in the world.
In Russia, 70% of academic institutions are state owned. Moreover, contrary to popular opinion, government spending on science from year to year increase. In the 2006 budget for these purposes provided 71.7 billion rubles. June 2 the Ministry of Education and Science has submitted to the Government Office of the RF plan for modernizing the academic sector of science, which allowed the use of budgetary funds allocated RAS maximum impact. In particular, the document contains proposals for the restructuring of Sciences: establish clear criteria for appropriateness of the research, working to further reduce wasted scientific organizations, increasing at the expense of funding for the way forward. In addition, the Ministry of Education sees fit to put under state control revenues guidance of Sciences of property management provided by the institution in perpetuity free of charge.
As expected the authors of the project, agreed with the concept of reform of Sciences will be placed before the Cabinet before July 1. However, the process has advanced only to the stage of reading the document academic authorities and at this stage seems to have slowed down.
The participants at the end of May general meeting of Sciences flatly refused to accept the terms of the concept, seeing in the proposed measures "financial strangulation with an eye on the privatization of scientific institutions." However, the desperate resistance of the scientific elite change was not unexpected.
Accounting Chamber of Russia in 2002, checking the finances of Sciences, found a "non-target costs" by the Academy of budgetary funds in the amount of 137 million rubles. for 2000-2001.
Subsequently, the Audit Chamber has suspended the application of provisions on a case of sanctions, taking into account the statement by the Vice-President of RAS Academician Gennady Mesyats, who promised "to resolve to the Government the issues that led to the violation of normative legal acts." The wording, as can be seen, slurred. However, over the signature of the influential pundit enough and such.
But if that? Unlike. In the I quarter of last year, the Academy was visited by the auditors of Property, verified by the Agency for Property Management Sciences for harmonization of investment contracts. The audit was conducted oversight agency in connection with the special treatment of the FSB of Russia. As it turned out, the state property management of RAS in fact, freely dispose of their interests, not having the special rights. As the commission report, "in a number of investment treaties include provisions that violate the requirements of federal law regarding the transfer of federal property." For example, February 28, 2003 Head of the Agency academician Leopold Leontiev signed between the PMU "Publishing House" Science "(a division of RAS) and JSC" Dekra Academic Invest to build office and residential buildings on land owned by the "Science" in Pozharskiy Lane . The market value of land and the total investment in the contract is not specified, the figures only the residual book value of buildings destined for demolition. During the test, the constituent documents revealed that the company "Dekra Academic Invest" was officially registered in just a week before the commission's decision to conclude with RAS investdogovor. Of course, for a provision on the law of competition among potential investors in this case, as in many others, we are not even attending. acting on the same lines, the agency put into circulation was a huge money lands in the heart of Moscow, signed an investment agreement between the Office of the affairs of the RAS and OJSC Holding Company Glavmosstroy; Institute of State and Law and the Academic Law University, Institute of Latin American and OOO "KV-Engineering.
Official revenue from rental of Sciences academic real estate over the past year amounted to about 800 million rubles. Shadow income received by the Administration of the Academy only identified during the audit illegal contracts, experts estimated 4-5 billion rubles. As for the real scope of the development of the gold veins, something about them can only guess at - "authoritative" for example, RAS today should be a big part of various public research organizations.
In this case the only source of funds for continued research and salary staff continues to be the state budget.
So the desire of the Ministry of Education and Science to consolidate all funds received by academic institutions in the use of state property, it is understandable. According to the draft reform, control over the distribution of these revenues will be engaged in special public councils.
With regard to the RAS, then she plays the role of expert and coordinating organization in the field of basic science. Everyone, as they say, his own.
© "profile", 20.06.2005
How specifically sawed "Russian Nobel"
President of Russia Academy of Sciences Yuri Osipov has written a statement in which only one line. Academician Osipov - mathematician, and this line is simple and reissued as a mathematical formula. RAS President Yuri Osipov has written notice to the effect that will cease to be Acting Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the international prize "Global Energy", which is the largest prize in Russia.
The idea of premium in 2002 was the first time publicly voiced by Putin, who persuaded her advocacy and practical usefulness of the Nobel laureate Jaures Alferov. "Global Energy" had been declared as "Russian Nobel, which corresponds to Russia and the giant size of the award's standards - about $ 1 million prize is awarded for achievements in energy, where Russia and the cold northern country, has many undoubted victory.
The founders of the "Global Energy" had become "Gazprom, Yukos and RAO UES of Russia". The prize is awarded three times already. In 2005, the scrip Yukos was empty, and the honor to sponsor entrusted the loyal Surgutneftegaz. The first award was presented by his own president of Russia, he disdained the second ceremony, on the third, scheduled for the end of June, according to rumors, will not have, and the Prime Minister.
President of the Academy of Sciences - member of the Security Council and many other of the Presidential Council, at meetings of the government is sitting at the main table near the prime minister. At these times it is difficult to recall another case that a high official of that rank to voluntarily resign from a higher authority. I figured mathematician Osipov consequences? Today in the stable state officials did not vzbrykivayut, but for this they are allowed to carry. Why mathematician Osipov dared to violate this very axiom? Because he, the Chairman of Advisory Board of "Global Energy", ashamed of the decision committee. Last award was too much:
In 2005, the Global Energy Prize "awarded to the Chairman of the International Committee of the Global Energy Prize" Academician Jaures Alferov (together with the German professor). Such incidents do not know either one prize in the world. For more than a century of its existence, the Nobel Prize has not received a single member of the Nobel Committee. But Russia has its own morality, their ethics - including, as it turned out, in science, the purity and high principles which likes to talk a Communist Jaures Alferov. Another of his favorite topic - the poverty of science, which enough to maintain the state. But own experiment Alferov said that this is a false statement. Just not all scientists have learned to use the state.
Incidentally, the former was awarded with the subtext. First Prize (together with an American who supported the nomination of Alferov, the Nobel Prize) went to Vice President RAS Gennady Mesyats, which at that time disposed of in the academy's cash flow and real estate. Incidentally, another month and a member of the Expert Council of "Global Energy". Second prize went to Academician Alexander Sheindlin, who is the honorary director of the institute, headed by the chairman of the Expert Council of "Global Energy". In the scientific community There are persistent rumors that the largest prize in Russia are divided, dividing it in a narrow and a trusted circle. This is on current concepts is called "cut it":
Good thing invented. And very sorry that so quickly "Global Energy" become dirty and grind. But what surprised? With the premium received exactly as with Yukos, one of its founders. Yukos sawed those who determine his fate. And "Global Energy" its judges sawed on the same algorithm. High sample is contagious, but harmless.
Therefore should not be president of the RAS deal chistoplyuystvom. Or he does not know what smart people talk about white crow?
14 янв. 2010 г.
Excuse. Translation automatic.
Katjushchik Victor G.
tel 8 (3902) 23-08-69
tel 8 909 525 60 43
Anyone who teaches or studying physics people are entitled to expect that the training manuals and reference literature contain scientific wealthy information. However the known practice often different from desirable. Scientific speculation in the area of fundamental physics steel case almost commonplace. Fantasy solutions fundamental physical problems for decades rewritten from one textbook in another, while overgrown more ridiculous comments. Unsubstantiated scientific hypothesis after repeated Multiplier issued for allegedly proved the theory.
Today in the twenty-first century, with the full approval Physical RAS issuance manuals, imposing students inadequate medieval notions of the universe. Some used allegations are fables from the category: "The earth is flat stands on three pillars. It is similar to, crept into the 21 century misunderstandings are hypothesis about the negative scalar and inadequate version spaces. Many theorists so engrossed Distortions space that is not aware of which of the distortions are possible and which are impossible in principle.
If today at 21 century, scientist says that "Many times nothing can give something." Can we acquiesce to such methods? And how do if such medieval nonsense lies based on officially adopted by the physical concept included in the educational program, taught in the best universities of the country (MSU, NSU, etc.)?.
One of the most attractive for scientific speculation, is the gravitational interaction. The number of inventions and scientific falsification this direction over all possible limits. What kind of theories are consistent and What should draw?
Only criterion of scientific consistency is experiment.
Offer your attention only experimentally proven physical concept.
Distance, length, area.
( To facilitate understanding of the issue articles are accompanied by explanatory examples available.)
Experiment to determine the number of geometric dimension.
Determine the number of full-dimensionality of the geometric space, where we are:
Geometric dimension - Spatial length for any of specified axes orthogonal to each other in space.
Experiment tests: on what number of axles, arranged orthogonally to each other, there may be full degrees of freedom, implying a free linear movement.
As initial framework adopted Cartesian coordinate system (located in the space orthogonal to the axis OX OC OZ.) .
Confirmed experimentally by the number of geometric degrees of freedom:
As a pilot project is the steel ball of diameter d, Mass m.
Implement practical steps for moving the test object axis OX.
The result: an experienced ball may be freely moved axis OX.
Implement practical steps for moving an object along the y-axis.
The result: an experienced ball may be freely moved along the y-axis.
Implement practical steps for moving an object along the axisZ .
The result: an experienced ball may be freely moved along the axisZ.
We carry out practical steps for moving an object along any other axis, placed orthogonally to the previously described.
The result: an experienced ball can not be moved along any further defined orthogonal axes.
All movement of the ball corresponds to moving on previously identified axes: OX OC AboutZ.
Conclusion: experimentally confirmed that the space in which we find ourselves has exactly three geometrical dimensions (not four, not eight, not so much any was more, namely the three experimentally confirmed the geometric dimensions ).
Repeat this experiment Over time (after 7 days, 30 days, after 365 days).
The experimental remained unchanged.
Space is an independent geometric entity in the foreseeable limits in no way independent of time. Time not may, according to original definition of geometric dimensions, to be located under any right angles to this geometric dimensions .. Time as a physical factor is not adds space any additional geometric dimensions, and itself time not geometric dimensions.
The notion that time is supposed to be more geometric dimensionality-naive and intellectually bankrupt, are okolonauchnymi speculation.
Experiment to determine the components linear size.
As a prototype we use a linear value 10 meters, the location which we define by setting the two relevant point in space.
Define what constitutes linear size of 10 meters.
Through the control points divide the initial interval (10 meters) into its component parts.
Result of the experiment:
Initial Linear (represented in the form of a segment of length 10 meters) has successfully divided into any parts, with the composite parts are smaller Linear magnitude.
Conclusion: the linear value consists of smaller linear values. (linear magnitude is not of numbers nor from any abstractions and consists precisely of the variables, the presence which is real and confirmed experimentally).
the notion that the linear magnitude supposedly can consist of certain points of zero diameter, is naive and intellectually untenable.
Experiment the definition of positive, negative linear scalar quantities.
As a prototype we use the linear value, presented in the form of a segment of length 10 meters, which determine the location, setting the two relevant point in space.
Define depends whether positive scalar linear values of the location of the Cartesian coordinate system and its orientation in space. We carry out manipulations with the Cartesian coordinate system moving it in space relative given linear size.
Result of the experiment:
Neither any movement of the Cartesian coordinate system about a given linear size does not change its original properties. Experimental Linear invariably remains positive and their properties in any way deviates from any other segment, representing the linear equal magnitude.
Linear scalar is always positive.
The notion that the linear value can be negative scalar, intellectually untenable. Versions of possible existence of negative scalars (including a number of interpretations voiced within the vector algebra) are contrary to the pseudo-scientific experiment frauds.
Since Linear is the basic foundation for all spatial variables, notion that spatial values may be alleged negative scalars, intellectually untenable.
Since spatial value is the basic foundation for all physical values notion that physical values allegedly may be negative scalars -- intellectually untenable.
Sample, explaining naivety prevailing culture interpretation of the linear variable as consisting of dimensionless points:
Two theoretical decided a distance.
Positioned in space one mark, through the meter -- another and have distance
Next theorists have decided create long.
- And how to create we?
- And let's between marks the point is located.
- Let. And what?
- As the school taught spherical diameter of zero.
Positioned 1000000 points, then another, 1000000 points. Day had, month, year.
One theorist says another:
- A between the two marks do not added. Points, some are not visible (the diameter of zero). Maybe them and not at all? Lengths can not.
- Nonsense. We have them now glue together, blind in length.
They took one of the theorists point, stuck to her other point to it yet 10000000000 points and more, more, else.
All points of the blind. The result was one point of diameter zero.
- Listen to colleague nothing happens lengths do not. Maybe what we are doing wrong?
- And it might still not take the point and what or whether other things? Example dashes. Maybe not necessarily so that the point - zero. Maybe let her length will be. Let the point is a point segment (value). So even glue them so home go??
- Oh. Here's another. In textbook cauldron point zero. Glue on. "
OF THE ABOVE dialogue clearly seen - however naive are some modern supposedly scientific attitudes. The length can not set any abstractions: point of zero diameter .. The length can not set any number or a number. Length is defined only by the size.
Space – bulk quantity unclosed six directions specified by three orthogonal intersecting lines.
Geometric space - full set of geometric dimensions, sufficient for the formation volume.
where - Quantitative indicators, where linear value.
Adequate three-dimensional space -- sufficient for Education level set of three orthogonally located, full of geometrical dimensions, each of which represents direct subject to the linear homogeneity of all possible directions.
Physical space -- object representing full set of geometric dimensions, generators volume, natural (natural) way saturated matter, possessing complete set of physical properties in all their Diversity. Where
In the physical sense of space is not closed volume and has at its entire length homogeneous properties.
All versions of any closed or curved Spaces are scientifically unsound, naive, inadequate rigging.
Physical properties in the real Space:
All physical phenomenon and objects are and take place to be exclusively in the space. All the physical processes occur only in space, but nowhere else. The result is that, space originally is primary and defining the essence for any physical object, process and phenomena. Any physical phenomena, objects, properties - in relation to the space are secondary concepts. Co secondary Refers all without exception physical entities, including entities such as: mass, time, energy, and v. d.
Experimentally proved that any physical properties apply to a small volume of real space unconditionally apply to a larger volume of real space. DData manifestations observed without exception in all areas punitive mankind space and supported by all possible experiments.
For each small interval of time is valid and unconditionally experimentally confirmed absence geometric and temporal boundaries of the physical phenomena.
Time constant for all accessible to experiment parameters (smoothness of flow, uniformity, lack of structural accelerations with equal physical conditions).
Of these conditions should be that, and for any longer period of time (as consisting of at equal intervals with the validated properties) apply:
- Smooth flow, uniformity, lack of structural acceleration at equal physical conditions, lack of any, including time limits for distribution of physical phenomena.
What legitimate and the only possible is concluded : over time not limited and has a duration of minus infinity to plus infinity.
Any version of what either the beginning or end times, as well same version of that which is temporary stage would have been no space - are naive and intellectually untenable.
Formatting three-dimensional space.
(Reduction of all linear and bulk quantities Space as well as the objects it contains to single system of measures.)
Formatting a three-dimensional space allows confidently, without any contradictions, paradoxes and uncertainties operate infinitely large and infinitely small quantities.
Of uncontested confirmed information (not dependent on any subjective theoretical constructs) Modern science has uniformity of distribution of matter at the macro level.
(This is generally known and recognized by official science as reliable).
This uniformity distribution of matter is fixed in the system of measures (coordinates standards) appropriate real three-dimensional version space.
For major theoretical constructs as spatial structure use real space. As the dimensional framework adopted Cartesian coordinate system.
Distance -- spatial length between two points. Distance is determined the shortest path connecting the marked points. Distance can be expressed by linear Limited quantities these two points.
Length - Measure length of the path, expressed across linear size.
Segment - Linear closed from both sides.
Direct - Linear value of non-closed with two parties.
Plane - value of the area unclosed four directions specified by two orthogonally intersecting straight.
R -- linear dimensional unit.
Linear dimensional unit R - arbitrarily chosen value of the actual physical length, which is further only dimensional linear basis for all (large and small) distances in Euclidean space (chosen simultaneously for all further calculations).
( illustrative R can take equal no one to count, for example kilometers )
n - nonleaf quantitative measure in the base case is treated as nonleaf quantitative value.
In the particular case nonleaf quantitative measure n - Can be treated and used (as a final quantitative indicator) as sufficiently large number.
Nonleaf quantitative measure n - Logical analog quantity expression tends to infinity variable (in the popular sense - infinity ( ∞ ).
L - geometrical ray (geometrical length of the beam). Ray - linear value, closed with one hand.
Define some interpretation length L geometric ray:
To this question there are two hike:
The length of the beam taken as a theoretical model consisting of an open aggregate dimensionless points (commonly known "Naive" intellectually inconsistent interpretation).
The length of the beam is taken as a non-closed set calibrated linear variables.
The length of any segment is taken as a set of tiny segments having a length not equal to zero.
We use approach № 2.
In this approach, as the base ray is taken linear dimensional unit R (a certain segment of a certain length).
The length of the beam with this approach is taken equal product of the dimensional unit R and nonleaf quantitative indicator n.
Properties of linear dimensional units of R
Length R (after selection of its private value) adopted mutually dependent:
1. the length of the beam consisting of segments R ,
2. from component length R point segments T,
where T -- segment obtained of
Total dependence was adopted as follows:
where the linear measuring unit R consists n "Quantity" point segments T
where beam L consists n "Quantity" dimensional segments R .
Define some duration of three-dimensional linear Space:
Geometric beam -- eat floor line.
(line consists of two beams).
Length axis 0X , in one direction a ray
(in both directions - straight).
The length of the geometric ray L equal product of the dimensional unit R on quantitative value n .
Value n - can be interpreted not only as tending to infinity quantitative value.
To solve particular problems, not dependent duration geometric beam, the value n - can be interpreted as enough large number.
Taking the original format
We thus format the all without exception spatial magnitude. It looks like this:
Length geometric direct E - equal sum of the lengths of its constituent rays.
Where is the length of the straight line expressed lengths in the beam
Where is the length of the straight line expressed in dimensional units (segments of length R).
Also the length direct we can express a point intervals T ,
Then E will look like:
World line E (geometric line having a section (a square with sides T))
The length of the worldline
The volume of the worldline (primary section ),
Global beam - Geometric ray having primary section
The length of the beam of the world
The global beam:
Measuring unit area (square measure).
It is a square with sides R
World tape (strip R (both directions along the axis)).
Square World tape equal:
World List W (full plane).
Area worldsheet W equal 2 n World Ribbon
Global layer - of the space bounded parallel planes placed apart distance equal to the initial base section T ,
Volume World layer equal:
World stratum - of the space bounded by parallel planes, placed from each other at a distance R
The global reservoir:
World rod - Part of the space cross - square section (volume limited two pairs of parallel planes separated by a distance R , at the location of pairs planes perpendicular to each other).
Volume throughfall world rod equal
Half the world's rod.
What multiplicity world total (multiplicity of adequate three-dimensional space) is . in dimension .
Based reduced apparent in the following format:
If all volume observable part of the Universe take in Formatting space equal then the ratio of the observable part of the Universe the actual amount will be equal to its , And through once acceptation (equal to a particular volume measured in real standard units) we have, without any difficulties can move other calculations.
This n - nonleaf quantitative measure (similar to the numerical expression tending to infinity values (in the popular sense - infinity ( ∞ )) Functionally can be widely used as a number. Multiplication, division, exponentiation, without or contradictions, paradoxes and uncertainties, with full respect for the severity of outcome.
This format dimensional Space completely covers the problems is infinitely small and infinitely large quantities.
(And as much facilitates understanding of cosmology students).
Formatting three-dimensional space is tool qualitatively superior Set theory.
(Set theory in spite of its popularity in the system Education contains a deep structural errors in consequence of which is intellectually bankrupt the product.)
Formatting a three-dimensional Space - Is very convenient tool for the consideration cosmological versions of the private and explain physical phenomena.
By carrying out Formatting a three-dimensional space technically, we describe the linear value without using any theoretical assumptions. Thus, we observed actual course of things. That reason Formatting a three-dimensional Space does not require any additional evidence and has the status of equal status is proven.
This status are all direct consequences derived from basic platform including all of the formulas (in particular from: L/R=R/T=n ).
Example status has proved corollary:
Whatever the length of the beam L , number of its constituent elements of T
There will be equal to the number of elements constituting the T segment R .
- this assertion has a status which does not require proof proved in the mind of its evidence.
Hence already proved that the representations are equivalent to the line and the segment - for homogeneous spaces are not true, are naive and intellectually untenable.
- Formatting a three-dimensional Space is apparatus built not on abstract dimensionless points but on the real physical quantities.
Of rigidly follows - that in the presence of non-zero density, any geometrical ray in the space early or later, will be rested in a solid.
That is, in the physical sense, the observer Scattered around in space "wall".
This fact explains the "dark color" space space.
Main principles location of celestial bodies in Euclidean space. Basic principles of force interaction of heavenly Tel.
Power F is a measure of mechanical interaction of material bodies.
Strength - vector magnitude and its effect on the body is determined by:
- Module or numerical value of force
- Direction force
- Point of application force
Module power is scalar, out of which: Power is always a positive quantity.
There "Negative force of attraction" or "negative repulsive forces. There is only a positive force. In nature, and thus in physics, there is only be:
1. The force of attraction - always a positive quantity, value from zero to plus infinity [ 0 ; + ∞ )
2. Repulsive force - always a positive quantity, A value of zero to plus infinity [ 0 ; + ∞ ) .
Power interaction of heavenly bodies within Euclidean space are governed basic law Heavenly Mechanics - Law of universal gravitation. , from which follows: unlimited spatial duration gravitational interaction directly resulting from the dependence . Of which: value of force with distance reduced to arbitrarily low values, but thus can not be zero.
Interaction and motion of bodies in the real three-dimensional space regulated:
Newton's third law. From which it follows that movement of a single body within Celestial mechanics leads to mutual (albeit modest but) displacement all, without exception, the celestial bodies.
According to Newton's third law fall even a tiny mass in the direction Sun, albeit in very small quantitatively, but is counter movement of the sun. This is equally true to any and all celestial bodies.
Power interaction of heavenly bodies in real dimensional space is also regulated mutual balance of power.
Under this terms, universal interaction built on the strength of attraction a strict order, due to mutual orbital motion, allowing the bodies to keep its location in space and avoid the destruction of an integrated system, due legitimate for the forces of attraction dynamics Education macrobodies.
Intuitively, these principles of interaction can be tracked on gas model (a close analogue of the force).
As is known, gas molecules are in force interaction, which is why when some conditions hold each other equidistant location in space. In force interaction, the molecule or than not "constrained" before moving to designated space and at the confluence different factors, some of them may line up, For example, in one line.
Fig. . № 6. Fig. . № 7. Fig. . № 8
But under no circumstances in the line may not line up all molecules gas. This due not only negligible probability of such an arrangement, but also due power failure such distribution. Since the interaction forces among molecules impede this location.
If we assume that the gas molecules placed in a confined space (reservoir) could to "line up in one line, then in that case pointed to the difference of gas pressure on the wall reservoir. Pressure by the distribution of molecules would be higher than other directions. This particular situation in practice impossible. And gas molecules always occupy the position corresponding integrated by force equilibrium.
If we consider the theoretical model gas, with which the forces of interaction are not force mutual repulsive and attractive forces (pure) it is quite obvious power dynamics, in which the mutual attraction of molecules leads a cascade process of formation of a single cluster (all molecules flock to a common center).
Under such conditions, not imply any, distribute molecules in volume.
Such dynamics clearly traced in the example magnetic crumbs. When location magnetic crumbs on the plane, pieces of the magnet, overcoming the friction force rushing in a single center (avalanche-like process in practice).
It so be noted that theoretically there is some theoretical possibility, which in a number of additional conditions, such as: organized planetary motion (attracting) molecules with respect to each other lack of critical collisions and other factors can bring the system out of equilibrium model gas on the forces of attraction could be "Viable".
And though This probability-negligible, assume that all the necessary conditions is still possible to observe and consider Model details.
Under what conditions may exist this model?
Subject if mutual arrangement involving the interaction of objects (molecules) would not lead to the formation of a cascade process. That is all related interaction objects (molecules) for each other at any one time should be at distances corresponding balance of forces and move on very strict path (like as occurs in the model of forces of repulsion where the location is leveled by the forces of the system). And any even a minimal deviation from the balance forces withdraw system built on the attraction of a balance, and run avalanche process.
Call similar deviation critical for power balance.
Vzaimopolozhenie bodies celestial mechanics in force sense is a close analogue force interaction within ideal gas model.
All Celestial Mechanics originally based on the assumption that such a mutually balanced force interaction celestial bodies on the forces attraction possible is the place to be in nature.
And if we assume that such a force balance on the forces of attraction really takes place in nature, then by mutual arrangement of bodies in space are presented fairly stringent requirement.
Forceful interaction of all without exception celestial should proceed in under strict equilibrium. When complete avoidance of deviations critical for the power balance otherwise start snowballing process (just like in the gas model built on the attraction).
Consider the power interaction within the framework of classical mechanics.
Power interaction within Classical Mechanics
determined by the presence of gravitational forces and centrifugal forces (Inertia).
(At this stage, it makes sense to note that some physicists are trying ignore / deny the existence of inertial forces. This approach not physically wealthy. Detail This perspective is Annex ).
Body (object) moves steadily and uniformly in only one case: when all the forces attached to the body, are mutually balanced. It is also necessary to remember that every action is a reaction. In physical terms, this means: that if kernel falls to Earth, the Earth, and at this point falls on the nucleus. (And despite that the result of displacement of the Earth is insignificant, the fact that this shift occurs and from the physical point of view, this phenomenon is fully justified).
Therefore, no presentation in celestial mechanics movement of a single body supposedly independently and randomly (from other phone) - can not be much, either physically off.
Shift any, even very small body effect on the location of bodies involved with him in the force interaction. Since in force interaction mutually involved all the body celestial mechanics, then, respectively, and any movement apart taken of the body affects the relative positions of all other bodies.
Since in the visual dynamics of a power plan mutual distribution of bodies in space filled bodies of various sizes, it is difficult imagine - we use a simplified scheme for clarity.
Fill up a certain preset amount equal bodies mass and size (equidistant location).
If we introduce a scheme estimated body mass of larger, then the relative position of other bodies change. Around more massive body formed discharged area in physical plane, secured dynamics equalization applied to the body forces.
Such dynamics converges with observations: the more massive a cluster celestial objects, the considerable amount rarefied region containing a cluster objects. Example: galaxies surrounding space.
In turn, any calculated body force terms can be represented as a certain area filled equidistant bodies equal mass and size.
Stability of the orbit and balance of the body in orbit initially two fundamentally different concepts.
Stability orbit eat Energy characterization trajectoryIn principle does not depend on the actual direction of forces applied to the body (Fig. number 14, Number 15).
Figure № 14 Figure № 15 №16
In turn, balance body orbit eat equality of real forces attached to the body, located in one point of the orbit.
At this stage, it makes sense to note that Not all graduates of private universities able to distinguish between the concept "Stability of the orbit" and "The balance of the body" orbit. (A detailed description This perspective is in the appendix.)
Consider balance in the framework of classical mechanics:
Equilibrium: a state of rest of the body (material point) in relation to other bodies (for DPGs - center of mass of CO). Equilibrium occurs when all the forces acting on the body are mutually balanced.
Sustainable balance: When, after a small deviation the position of the body (the source of exposure), arise in the system forces seeking to return the body to equilibrium, equilibrium is not disturbed, the body returns to equilibrium, and deviation from equilibrium does not increase with time.
Unstable equilibrium: When after a small deviation of the body (the source of exposure), equilibrium is disturbed, the body does not return to equilibrium, and deviation from equilibrium increases with time.
Planetary balance: State * relative calm center masses body to the center of mass of another body in the reference frame associated with the centers of mass of both bodies. Planetary balance occurs when all acting on the body forces are mutually balanced.
Planetary stable equilibrium: when, after a small deviation from the position of the body, balance is not disturbed, the body returns to equilibrium, and deviation from the equilibrium does not increase with time (Figure number 20, 21, 22). Examples sustainable planetary equilibrium are the body celestial mechanics.
Figure number 20, 21, 22
Planetary unstable equilibrium: When, after small deviation from the position of the body equilibrium is disturbed, the body is not returned equilibrium, and the deviation from equilibrium increases with time. (Figure number 23, 24, 25)
(an example of unsustainable balance of the planetary motion is a steel ball on the horizontal plane around a permanent magnet)
. Figure number 23, 24, 25
· relative peace of the body: dormancy on the chosen reference system implies a possible change geometric distance between the centers of mass of both bodies associated with promotion of the body along the trajectory of the orbit.
· The first type of deviation of the body: when the deviation of the body due to external forces.
· The second type of deviation of the body: When the deviation of the body associated with the advancement of the body trajectory of the orbit (noncyclotomic orbit).
With respect to the subject (Celestial Mechanics) referred to planetary stable equilibriumIn which the deviation of the body, does not cause a violation of planetary equilibrium.
If a planetary system does not meet the original definitions Act Conservation Energy, means such planetary system is physically impossible.
Bulk - One fundamental physical concepts.
Bulk may be represented as product volume body and density.
In turn, the dimensional base any volume body (as well as any volume in Euclidean space) is product three linear values (given orthogonally).
Any volume maybe presented as product of a certain numerical value and private level Acting as a dimension.
Private volume Acting as a dimension can be represented as
, where product two of linear dimensions in turn
represent square ,
What he private volume Acting dimension asCan be represented as product Square and linear values.
- Where square can be considered as the initial (zero) measure of capacity (ie as the amount of zero material layer)
- Where (segment length l) Can regarded as material height layer.
For any body even has a complex geometry, there is always such a private section, which area , When multiplied by a transparent, longitudinal, linear cross-section body (the height of the material layer of the body) - Will give the value of the body equal calculated
(see Figure number 27).
Figure №27 Figure № 28
At the same time as if necessary, we can use square spanning surface within solid angle (closed to the calculated body), as for the shrinking surface there is always particular solution h Whereby we obtain strict value volume (see Figure number 28).
So way weight, expressed through the surface area, spanning the solid angle formed by this body, has kind: .
Product area spanning surface and the density of the body respect to the body itself can be considered as initial (zero) measure the mass (weight zero material layer).
Averaged longitudinal section of the body (hereinafter simply h) can be considered as averaged height physical layer.
(The area spanning surface further indicated easy as .)
Form Law Gravitation can be represented
in the form: where and eat mass of the first and second body, (expressed through contractible surface area).
Physical effects. Gravitation as a consequence of having an impact.
Power called measure mechanical interaction material bodies.
From which it follows that contactless forms of influence force - is measure is impact. Impact can be considered as product quality and quantitative indicators impact And initial measure the impact considered as ,
- Where - qualitative index exposure to determined ability Energy to impact, and equal:
- Where intensity base energy impact (considered as a general property of energy - is determined intensity of the impact coming from single measure of energy).
- where coefficient spatial transfer (due to the homogeneity Euclidean space equal ).
- Where spatial dependence (defined as the distribution of the effect on the surface of the sphere)
where - Distance physical layer body having an impact.
What for real dimensional space qualitative index contactless impact is expressed by:
from which very impact expressed:
and the initial impact of the measure is expressed as (impact is zero material layer).
- Where - quantitative exposure index
(Determines the total number energy provider effect)
Generally quantitative exposure index be interpreted as charge.
For gravity a charge in favor -- bulk.
- Expressed as product:
1. Energy density
(if we consider mass as a carrier of energy, )
2. volume , which energy lies.
Thus, quantitative impact indicator is
or treatment: where volume submitted by:
Then the zero volume may treated as square section.
What primary measure for quantitative indicator of the impact will be material layer quantitatively equal - nroizvedenie density and area.
(where treated as initial (zero) measure of the custodian substance having an impact.)
(Note: Because the impact is entire plane (each private) section of the body, then the point of application of the total vector impact considered the point of the plane Which corresponds point of balance for all private vectors of influence.).
Thus, formula turns impact takes following:
- The total impact and - Initial measure impact.
Thus, if through impact express power ,
( amount of projection on axis power components ),
then in effect initial measure force , will interpreted as
Reduced to direction measure impacted.
where reflects the general modified aggregate values of all private actions when projected onto a common axis.
In turn resultant force of will look like:
Where quantitative rate force determined quantitative expression of the host impact object and his susceptibility exerted to Effects (reflects What is the number of test substances is under the influence).
- Indicator of general number under the influence body.
- Indicator for initial amount under the influence of the body.
Where coefficient susceptibility the substance to basic effects
(For gravity coefficient susceptibility mass can be arbitrarily taken equal to unity).
Where is the number substance of the perceiver effect.
Where - size zero physical layer ( "zero" volume).
where - Height of the material layer.
Where - The amount of body
Where - Density,
Where (both actual product of density and volume) is mass.
for gravity, in as a quantitative indicator - Supports mass.
What primary: takes the form:
Where obvious common structure of the law of universal gravitation
Where - Mass of the first body (taking effect)
Where - Mass of the second body (an impact).
And if we denote as single factor , we obtain:
and if we interpret gravitation as an interaction of the centers of mass,
then excluded , and The result ,
what with difference in form sign (-) minus before - Corresponds proverbial
version of the Law of the World Gravity:
At this stage we can note the following:
that even make structural nature is impactWe did not find any theoretical assumptions to justify the sign (-) minus before
form Law of the World Gravity.
The general form of the law of gravity.
Describe theoretically options for the overall law of universal gravitation.
Experimentally prove the consistency of private version of the law of gravity. Experimentally proved not viability of alternative Version Law of universal gravitation.
Initial theoretical basis:
Law Universal gravitation in the form been postulated in framework of classical mechanics based experimentally confirmed by the manifestations of the gravitational force.
The law of universal gravitation in the form of - Is not in any dependence on the cosmological model of the universe.
In other words, the law of universal gravitation is satisfied:
- And for the model Universe is uniformly filled with many bodies
- and for unreal - a hypothetical model of the universe, consisting only of two bodies (m and M),
However, due to the fact that the Act was received on the basis of really taking place cosmological situation, we have every reason to assert that
form of the Act: into account all without exceptions attached to the body gravitational forces (actually occurring in nature and not independent from any subjective Selection cosmological model).
Total possible versions of the application of forces to the object in classical Mechanics regulated:
1. Geometry of real three-dimensional space:
2. Number participating in the interaction of objects ( m1, m2, complex distant objects).
3. Location participating in the interaction of objects (relative body).
4. The type of interaction (attraction or repulsion).
Possible (dubbed in Principles) version application of forces the object in classical mechanics displayed on the following schemes:
(Legend in the schemes: small body - test (core / apple) increasing body - the body that has an impact (Earth) single arrow denotes resultant force (gravity), multiple arrows mark channeling private actions):
According to the observed gravity on the original number versions bear additional condition:
5. The direction of the resultant force in the center of mass.
Versions in which the force is not directed at the center of mass (body is exposed) --
are not theoretically possible for gravity and not considered further
For other versions, there are two main options:
Option № 1
- Is a special case of the general form:
where - Acting estimated body by external forces from the left and right half of the complex of remote objects (the opposite direction and reason its equalityGiving as a result of zero total values force)
where: - The power of real interaction between two settlement bodies (m and M),
which in give proverbial form of the Act:
It is also possible and the second theoretical
Option number 2 Form Law - Is a private case more general form,
or treatment ,
or in the treatment of:
, where - The power of real interaction between two settlement bodies (m and M).
where (all described Options) - acting on estimated body by external forces (the opposite direction, but not equal in value and because its inequality yielding a result of some numerical value).
When This result is the general operation of the external and internal forces on the second treatment gives:
- That functionally is complete mathematically equivalent
common forms , However, there difference in direction of the radius vector the difference in sign before form.
At this stage, to highlight the following points:
Sign (-) minus before form , For all time the development of physics as a science and not got justification, -- either as a sign of the scalar nature, nor as sign of the vector nature.
In a sense of the sign (-) minus before the form - Exception the general rules.
Despite all the credibility of the classical interpretation gravity, there is no evidence confirming primary orientation components of gravitational forces.
By virtue of what formally any of the private forces of gravity can be obtained:
a) as the sum of two opposite direction forces directly attraction:
(Complex attraction, giving the resultant attraction (gravity))
b) as the sum of two opposite directed forces repulsion :
(complex repulsion, which gives the resulting pritalkivaniya (attraction / gravity)).
By virtue of what we are formally required to consider both data version.
So the total number of theoretically possible variants of the following:
Version № 1.
- gravitation sum from internal (from the phone (m and M),) And external (from remote phone) forces attraction. Opposite direction by external forces because his equality give zero total luminous.
The form of the law has the form:
Version № 2.:
- attraction develops from internal (from the phone (m and M),) and external (from remote phone) forces attraction. Opposite direction by external forces because its inequality give certain numerical value:
The form of the law has the form
Version № 3
(In this interpretation of gravity develops from outside (from remote phone) and internal (from the phone (m and M)) repulsive forces. Integrated repulsion gives resultant force gravity (pritalkivaniya)). Oppositely directed external forces repulsion because its inequality give value:
The form of the law has the form: (resulting radius vector directed from outside set of remote objects).
Through the experiment -- find out which of the three described above is theoretically possible variants is true.
Theoretical background experiment:
If not sustainable force balance of the body at one point, denoted direction of the applied force, it is not possible and sustainable, the force balance body all the way, consisting of aggregate such points marked direction of the applied force (ie equilibrium is impossible and any direct consisting of those points, and for every curve (ie, orbits) of such (from points) took place.)
(Note: it is about sustainable force equilibrium of the body, instead of stability of the orbit)
Experiment to achieve a sustainable balance of forces of attraction and repulsion:
To check for practice possible (impossibility) achieve contactless sustainable equilibrium Forces on attraction (repulsion), selected experiment to which No complaints on the possible influence of extraneous forces.
For the experiment required two confirmed repulsive forces and two confirmed attraction force (the true direction which beyond doubt).
These terms correspond:
1. Opposite direction flows.
2. Oppositely directed flows.
To exclude influence Experiments on outside forces (such as the gravitational force, centrifugal force) experimental flows sent horizontally.
In this scheme of the experiment extraneous forces not the same direction flows and the impact on the result of no effect. (no force of gravity, nor the power inertia).
Two oppositely directed flow of air between them test body (light plate, sheet plastic).
Flows of air pumped through two tubes calculated diameter.
The air is blown every available technical means. The equality of pressure on (input) output from pipes. (sources injection pressure are two turbine).
Test body at flexible bonds is suspended between two streams at an equal distance from sources of exposure.
Trial body is enough light plate from any material (in this case plastic) located frontally flows on flexible connections.
The results of the experiment:
For opposite direction of outgoing flows (forces repulsion) - There is clearly expressed stable equilibrium (a sheet of plastic flow is kept at distance corresponding equal Removal of sources).
Such dynamics can be traced with multiple experiments and does not depend on:
-- diameters of the feed holes.
-- material test body
- Other factors described in the design.
For oppositely directed incoming flows (ie, for the forces of attraction) stable equilibrium - is not observed.
Trial body is not equidistant from retractors holes.
Test body with equal probability rushes to one of retractors holes deforming flexible hangers holding the test body.
Intermediate conclusion (If strictly follow the definitions of the Act Conservation, it is inevitable following -- rather disappointing output):
Equilibrium on the forces of attraction - Impossible.
As the forces of gravity - the balance is impossible for each of the points, and for a line consisting of these points is also not possible.
What possible only general conclusion of the experiment:
In conventional version gravity planetary equilibrium in nature would not be observed in mind the impossibility of non-contact balance in the forces of attraction (all of the body celestial mechanics would not have orbits as such). Common treatment direct gravity – false and does not correspond to the observed picture of the world.
(Output simply unbelievable and disappointing, but the formal part of the real follows. If base of the experiment and its theoretical basis true -- then in force plan, the system two bodies, according to "direct gravitational" balance and its corollary planetary, as a phenomenon is impossible in principle.)
The experiment showed that of all theoretically possible (described above) options - the practice matches only version:
(Where the force gravity sum from outside (from remote tel) and internal (from the phone (m and M)) repulsive forces. Integrated repulsion gives resultant force gravity (pritalkivaniya)). Other versions of gravity - Physically impossible and contrary to experiment.
Forceful providing gravity of the complex of remote objects.
Consider processes occurring in private cosmological model. Assume our universe at the macro level uniformly filled by masses. ( mass uniformly distributed (macro level) throughout nonclosed volume regulated Euclidean space (see Fig. № 29)).
Fig. № 29 Fig. № 30
This version to some extent (foreseeable limits) coincides with the data observations obtained for studied of the universe. And if we assume that at boundless removal in all regions of the Universe occurs the same phenomenon (uniform distribution of mass in a similar medium-density) we have in any direction from any point of reference - an identical picture.
Within this version, we can quite confidently admit that setting, some cross-cutting rod certain sections and an unlimited duration we obtain for the two volumes form the backbone of the half - equal number of masses (Distributed the internal volume halves of the rod) and as a consequence equal to (aspiring to peer) external influences on equidistant zones (with equal content of the masses).
The number of masses can be expressed as product volume of the rod (geometric beam having not zero section) on average density (total distribution of mass in the universe).
The average density of the universe (observable part), we known. The volume of the rod we can ask through its cross section.
Then half the mass of the rod we have expressed in the form of equality:
that initially defined by:
Where - Volume of the left half unlatched rod
Where - The amount of the right half of the rod unlatched
Where - Average density.
In turn volumes and - can be represented as the equality
Where and half the length of the rod and - Cross - section of the rod.
Each and (length halves of the rod) can be represented as
Where - eat dimensional segment (linear value, chosen at our discretion)
Where - There quantitative measureWe based on the task at hand, can take or as nonleaf quantitative measure or as final quantitative measure (numerical value).
What mass of each Fragment rod of length Is equal ,
and common to the mass half rod is
That is for both halves of the rod, we have the equality of the masses expressed as
For convenience of computation ask length dimensional segment great extent to fragment masses of the largest and dense bodies in the universe, being cut from the body our calculated core length R , Under no circumstances is not exceeded overall quantitative importance of mass (obtained through the average density of the Universal), cut out of the Universe same core (length R).
(ie ask length R finite, but large enough.)
In such R , Equality will valid for all settlement cases.
Located in center of our pass-through (non-closed in both directions of the rod) -- material point.
On both sides of it, within the rod (within a given cosmological model) signed an equal number of masses.
Introduce Calculation some approaching the real, to the material point of the body (eg - the sun).
In this case, becomes:
where is part of the mass Sun, carved our core (a given section).
If calculated core, within the solid angle Sun delineate all directions, then obviously traced following dynamics:
with spacing two independent entity set of remote objects and our approaching object (Sun)
Fig. № 31
- tracked design decrease mass one halves of the complex of remote objects.
Moreover, in volume scheme this decrease in mass is not in the direct arithmetic dependence and the geometric (from solid angle and the distance between the bodies).
If complex remote objects represented as some remote areas has a (finite or not closed from the outside) the thickness surface uniform distribution mass (and the possibility of a single mass movement within the delineated area), then:
the separation from such a model of a certain weight (eg Sun) and moving it aside center
- On the inside sphere surface according formed cavity. Which increases as it approaches the settlement body to the center of the sphere .. (see Figure number 32, 33)
Fig. № 32 Fig. № 33
The volume of the cavities in geometric terms corresponds concave spheroid.
(in terms of force spheroid (mass difference) is located in opposite side
(See Figure number 34 - 36))
Fig. № 34 Fig. № 35 Fig. № 36
Bulk spheroid calculated based:
- volume body formed surface area shrinking flesh angle created by approaching the body, for the calculated distance set of remote objects ,
- Relevant linear sections approaching the body mass ,
- average density calculated for each relevant section approaching body mass MAssigned to the figure obtained in the future respectively, the world lines.
Solid angle -- ratio contractible surface to the square of the distance.
Contract surfaces are Depending on the solid angle and can easily be expressed from each other.
from which the ratio spanning the surface of the spheroid (mass difference) complex is equal to the shrinking body surface an impact, the square distance between interacting bodies and
What square spanning surface complex expressed as:
product shrinking surface of the second body (the Sun) and the distance to reduced to the complex field of remote objectsDivided by the square distance between the bodies and (that is between the nucleus and Sun)
From what our original:
at expression across based
takes the form: where:
1). bulk density (mass difference complex) based Depending
is equal - Density of the body an impact (ie the Sun)
2) where height physical layer based
is equal material height layer body having an impact.
where distance to the complex based on the definition we is (distance to object having an impact) hence and equal (in the formula can be reduced). Consequently, the initial shape
is an analogue form ,
which when making a single factor acquires kind
what (except for the sign before the formula) is functional equivalent . If consider gravity as a sum of external (from the complex) and internal (from the interaction of the two-body) forces, then result
will be equivalent common forms of the law of gravitation.
The absence of sign before the formula "offset" opposite direction of the radius vector (direction from the outside - from the complex to the trial body).
What makes it clear that:
1) version integrated push corresponds to all without exception observable manifestations of the known as a consequence of gravity Release .
2) version integrated push by virtue of the equivalence of a formula expression - In principle can not contradict the observed picture of the world in outlined formulation of the law .
Thus, we have proved that:
1) Shape is equivalent accepted
2) Law of the World Gravity Release integrated repulsion has the form .
Additional explanations and reasoning:
Privately owned dynamics force interaction can be tracked through the equality of the resulting foreign forces (from the set of remote sites) and the interaction forces of two bodies.
Compared particular values magnitude of the effect of complex
and strength of interaction between two tel then clear that
at Equal (which corresponds situation when exposed to body (Sun) removed from test body (core) at a distance corresponding to a considerable distance)
of the equality magnitude of the effect of the complex and the forces interaction of two bodies
Since the form
Which fully consistent , which implies that when external forces (from set of remote sites) and the forces of interaction of two bodies are equal.
As in classical mechanics converges with generally accepted representations.
Compare versions of gravity (prevailing culture version gravity Newton and integrated version gravity).
If we consider version of the Integrated gravity given effects not directed on the line connecting the centers of mass of both bodies, it is clearly visible difference of power dynamics in the spatial axes.
The combined effects on the body of the axis connecting the centers masses of both bodies, much smaller.
This difference is reflected in the figure below (reflecting the impact of the complex).
Figures Number 37 and № 38 schematically reflects the total number mass that determines the difference of axial pressure on the body under the version of the Integrated Gravity.
Figure № 39 reflects the pattern of the external (remote phone from the complex), strong pressure the body of the integrated version of gravity.
Fig. № 37 Fig. № 38
Fig. № 39 Fig. № 40
From the schemes apparently tracked dynamics provides a force component directed to the phenomena vector of gravity.
Figure number 39 - a scheme which determines force to ensure frozen Moon tide (geometric shape of the moon).
Figure number 40 -- scheme determines force ensuring tides (on Earth).
Figure number 41 -- mapped scheme defining sublimation tails comet - as a consequence impact of set of remote objects.
Fig. № 41 Fig. № 42
Figure № 42 mapped scheme defining sublimation of a comet's tail in the light impact of the complex of remote objects and impact from the Sun.
In this case, the phenomenon can be explained by "Spectrum" of the gravitational effects of passing through the sun.
Figure number 43 scheme reflects pressure on the body of version of the direct gravity.
Fig. № 43
What is an unbalanced impact factor from complex remote objects on version of the direct gravity - no.
In modern physics, including officially recognized training manuals There is a lot intellectual insolvent views.
An example is the point of view that: « closest point to the Sun Earth (zenith) attracted little harder. "
Let us consider why this point of view is unscientific, and nWhy is tidal Release direct gravitational physically - impossible:
Suppose Earth a straight line falling on Sun.
Earth is in free fall (in the practice of weightlessness) and the ocean takes the form of regular spheres.
But what distinguishes the body in the orbit of the body located in a state of weightlessness?
In principle, nothing. (point drop - "leaves" aside).
And once the body in weightlessness and the forces there that may be hot flashes? According to direct gravity - no.
Power from the sun to make the body second time we do not have rights.
And since there is no strength and that the tide does not ensure anything.
(Besides the tide above the estimated potential impact - officially recognized).
For a comprehensive version - it turns out that the repulsion of the complex in the longitudinal and transverse directions is different.
In the longitudinal direction we discharged area and force action less.
Water rises just to the two sides. With one more with the other less. Fully agrees with the observations.
When the bodies are attracted to the formula has the form: .
When a body is attracted and at the same time that either deformed formula should have Appearance: .
No matter what you like or do not converge with the calculations with any observations.
That is, under the version of direct gravity we a desire to rush, but it is no corresponding power factor.
In addition the system is unstable:
That tides that produce work, and if costs were provided with exactly the energy of two bodies , The planetary scheme could not live to this age – well-known scientific fact.
Kernel weight 90 kg suspended hangs in the Earth's gravitational field.
Flexible connection deformed.
We can not calculate the force exerted kernel as 90 +60 kg:
We can not calculate effort exerted nucleus even as 90 +
We can calculate effort exerted kernel once as
Power factor is counted only once. Rope cut (free fall)
Deformations of the rope there.
If the law has the form: Means work (in terms of strain) - not the body of falls in orbit in zero gravity - tides - NO. (Do not confuse movement and start).
If. ., Then the body falls from orbit in a state of weightlessness and the force Fd performs the work and provides a high tide.
Often is announced Another ridiculous point view that the alleged:
"Tidal wave is formed under the action strength of lateral displacement ".
It regular attempt to force one to use twice.
Wrong one force used twice. This contradicts the basic logic ..
With such use strength formula must have been the form:
Where Fs strength of lateral displacement.
To be side offset - requires power. Force should be provided with a real physical phenomenon.
Gravity is already busy and the job is done.
And since there force providing lateral movement Then everything else is built solely on fantasy.
Version Direct Gravity (Newton's version) has certain lack of qualitative reasoning for directions:.
1. Balance of the body orbit.
2. The minus sign in front of the form . (sign, not having a physical nature).
3. The uniform distribution of matter at the macro level.
4. Sublimation of the tail of a comet.
5. Frozen lunar tide (elongated shape of the moon).
6. The height of the tides.
7. The work done by the tides.
8. Expansion Universe.
Of officially recognized (the phenomenon is not physically secured):
1. Height tides
2. The work done by the tides.
3. Frozen Moontide (phenomenon could occur with monolithic Moon.
At the same time, the official science recognizes that the solidity of the Moon - Impossible.)
All the above listed issues convincingly permitted on the declared version of the Integrated gravity.
Decisive advantage of the integrated version of gravity -- is availability of real power factor providing data observed in nature physical phenomena.
More about this subject: According to the direct attraction for bodies related there two possible scenarios:
- or be in avalanche process of formation of macro-bodies,
- or take the place space according to the principles mutual balance of power.
Assume that the body in the avalanche process does not participate, then their position in space corresponds to a forceful and determined by the balance only the actual physical force.
The static aspect of the relative position space for bodies of equal mass will correspond to the state, mapped on Figure number 44 (uniformly filled space) and the position of a single body will correspond to the state displayed on the Figure № 45
(since the introduction the scheme estimated body mass of larger, relative position of other bodies change).
Around each more massive body, is formed discharged area in physical terms of the mutual equality of forces.
Such dynamics converges with observations (the more massive a cluster celestial objects, the significant discharged area is congestion objects containing (example - galaxies and the surrounding area.)
What for reference system associated with the sun, location of the external bodies (equal mass), will force analogue scheme reflected in Fig. № 46:
And for the reference system associated with the body, analogous scheme № 47:
What is obvious presence of a discharged area around the Sun (scheme number 48 and number 49) but it is equally obvious that this region (as to previously driven scheme) -- shifted relative to probe body. Of above diagram clearly shows that if we consider the matter concluded in sphere with the center coinciding with the center of an experienced body -- observed change in the number of masses for right and left halves, transferred to the sphere, the complex of remote objects. It and have modified the provisions of bodies relative to a chosen reference system.
Thus, We clearly saw that the physical phenomenon physically feasible and really is the place to be in the nature .
On this stage it is worth noting: Location bodies determined by the geometry of the rarefied, but the very force interaction in quantitative terms is not determined by the rarefied area, and specific masses.
Consequently, in the calculation, we must into account not discharged region, and is mass.
And from the calculated values complex, we derive no discharged region, and a linear expression specific masses.
And if we have regarding the area may the impression that it surrounds the test body, then none of the masses surround the body can not, the mass of each body is calculated on the body is always the one hand (eg, right or left within the solid angle).
That is in force Plan the location of the masses, characterizing discharged area and mass of the settlement body ever corresponds to the scheme, in which the calculated body located at a distance and not penetrate inside which a particular weight.
As the situation with "Different-sized" bodies rather difficult to analyze all give complex of heavenly bodies to uniform suspension of small bodies of equal mass (scheme number 50).
We give to this state and the Sun
(Full body will leave unchanged. Scheme Number 51).
Dynamics of force interactions in terms of mutual equilibrium leads to a homogeneous system of uniform distribution of bodies in space.
It should be understood that this scheme Though clearly presents the principles mass distribution in space, but at the same time for direct determine the forces, this scheme should be modified. Since direct impact actually carried out not by "separated" the masses, and of very specific centers of mass real tel.
And in a real situation between the Sun and the body separated calibrated mass there, and there is no possibility of they penetrate. De facto mass are on the right and left at a distance. That is, as a vector base scheme has type, as delineated on the scheme Number 52 (open area).
Consider quantification of the real physical phenomena.
Shift rarefied area between the surfaces of two given concentric areas:
When you move the rarefied area between surfaces of two concentric spheres, changing the volume of the cone formed solid angle, hence, changes number material contained between two spherical surfaces within the solid angle designation of dimensions of the rarefied field (direct Geometric dependence of solid angle).
When it yourself body -- or where not disappeared. Totally the matter (mass in space) is left - exactly so how many. But between the surfaces of two concentric spheres, in the context of reprogramming the solid angle - the matter was actually less. In This can clearly see comparing the amount allocated to the solid angle areas on given in the text of the schemes Fig. № 53 and № 54.
At this stage should also note the following:
Since Sphere * with a uniform distribution gives a zero overall effect, then Further calculations of the total sphere - there is no need to take into account. They can be discarded and consider only the areas containing * uneven.
The final design scheme corresponds to that shown in Figure № 55
Further explanation: In order to bring a set of remote objects to the area is engaged in an operation known as: Central projection on surface of a sphere (the general course of spatial geometry).
In this operation position of all points (private masses) is projected on the surface of a sphere of a given diameter towards the center of the sphere (Figures number 56, №57, №58).
Figure Number 56. Figure №57. Figure №58.
Strength as a factor in determining the balance:
Forceful balance of the body in orbit within the frame of reference associated with the centers of mass (the bodies), defined the ratio of the gravitational force and centrifugal force.
Consider the graphs of force Rotational force of gravity and distance.
For the centrifugal force graph looks like ,
and for gravity as
The point of intersection graphs - point equality forces (point of force balance / power state of the satellite in orbit).
Forceful state of the satellite at orbit may be stable equilibrium, and may be unstable equilibrium (indifferent - do not consider) and was originally defined not the parameters of body motion, and physical conditions of the system (the increment of forces).
To force state of the satellite was stable equilibrium - it is necessary that when the unit removal of the forces seeking return the system to equilibrium.
Consider forces applied to the satellite.
With a single offset launch satellite into a lower orbit (weight -- constThe linear velocity const).
According to the direct attraction of gravitation -- increase.
The increment of the gravitational force is directed at finding body out of balance. The forces seeking to withdraw body of equilibrium, Which is clearly traced in the graph changes in the forces of distance.
Next: Power, an attractive body is dependent distance between objects (from 1 / r ^ 2)
Increase distance between objects, one linear unit leads to a force
Reducing the distance between objects per linear unit leads to the increment of force
A single shift in settlement body (satellite) also leads and a change in the centrifugal force ..
However, the linear velocity of the body on each individual time constant.
In addition the design increment of the centrifugal force per unit bias significantly less than the increment of the gravitational force.
From the data in graphs makes it clear that if indeed the observed picture of the world was based on law of gravitation (for version of the attraction), then either a planet would not be in principle.
(increment of force is directed strictly to the opposite side of required ). The body of such increments force held in planetary regime can not, and for any nonzero bias must leave orbit (and not only the original, but all other theoretically expected).
That is, on the fact - according to direct gravity, to keep the body in orbit - is not possible. No Strength providing this phenomenon. Moreover, the increment of force do planetary version of direct attraction impossible in principle.
This is another proof of loyalty to the integrated version of the gravity and misinterpretation of Newton.
According to integrated push as same time there is a real strength of providing a balance (see chart). Private repulsive forces between the bodies, just give partial increment of force, aimed at supporting sustainable equilibrium in the form in which we observe in nature:
And if not quantitatively greater than the repulsion from complex
we would in theory could be indifferent equilibrium (as in model "repelling the Universe", in an expanding not closed space with a zero density).
Next: In example with two planes we have for the forces of attraction - unstable balance, and for repulsive forces - equilibrium of (and in most "Closed" form - indifferent equilibrium). In this scheme the application of forces leads to the conclusion that the body out of balance.
In others geometrical conditions (planetary scheme) force closure is absent. Factors affecting a few. Describe their details: We believe that although gravity as the interaction of the centers of mass, but in fact gravity is dependent solid angle. When approaching the body, solid angle increases (some masses is carried in the hand, and further should move to the center of the Earth). Spacing of the masses (the dependence on solid angle) - this is not large, but NC factor (schedule rounded). In addition - in the real model (where the planes do not) there is a material difference between external and internal (from the Sun) impacts (this factor depends on the actual distances).
If interacting plane breed then closing factor decreases as increases free zone. The actual spacing of the masses in the universe -- incomparably greater than in the scheme with conventional magnets approximate. Additional NC factor is centrifugal powerWhich is entirely dependent on the speed of the body. And since the speed of the body (satellite), we initially able to ask very widely, even value of the centrifugal forces have changed respectively. Hence the importance and the resultant force attached to the satellite may be too widely. In the scheme with two planes of this power factor (centrifugal force) in principle - Absent.
Second factor. When approaching the same plane we have weakened the impact of second.
In the same volumetric (planetary) scheme the situation radically different.
When approaching a private center masses impact of the complex is not decreases and increases quantitatively Small and other deviations in most cases it is just there under action of external forces. Any unit change in distance between centers of mass (the deviation of the first type) leads (according to the Law of the World Gravity) to the increment of force dF. This increment of force on the version of direct attraction is not offset by a corresponding opposite direction, counterbalancing increment of other forces. Consequently, this increment of force caused by the deviation of the first type is aimed at finding a system out of equilibrium.
What should be the clear conclusion that planetary systems in the power of attraction does not meet the definition of the Act Conservation of energy. Consequently, such planetary systems are physically impossible.
Consider some points more:
We introduce the concept Gravity Magnet - conditionally accepted plane infinite space, provides permanent, uniform gravitational the impact of a given quantity. Here are surface conditioned to the stars plane, and empty along the plane of the body (the planet). Balance the system uniform application oppositely directed effects for this use second, respectively, located magnet. Isolate the system from external impact.
Let the gravitational force attraction magnets. Two parallel plane, and planet.
The body moves steadily (between the magnets). Any impact (not directed parallel to the plane of the magnet) takes the system out of equilibrium.
(increment of force aimed at finding a balance)
From any application of force - get offset this body, change the distance to the magnet, when you change the distance varies power. Process is accelerating. Such a balance - perhaps only in isolated system. That's just not possible.
Consider another version: (Just for the forces of attraction) . We introduce a set of remote objects. From bottom to top:-magnet number 1 - the left sector reduced to the plane of the complex remote sites-magnet number 2 (star) -planet
Magnet number 3 (equalizer)
Magnet number 4 - the right sector of the complex of remote objects.
The body moves steadily towards. Any impact (not directed parallel to the plane of the magnet) takes the system out of equilibrium. From any application of force - get the offset, the offset changes the distance to the magnet, When you change the distance varies power. and so the process is accelerating.
Conclusion: The balance - is possible only in an ideal system. That is virtually perhaps.
Stable equilibrium is not possible for a body located under the influence of a uniformly applied forces of attraction.
Let's see how the same scheme works in repulsion:
magnet number 1 - the left sector, reduced to the plane of the complex remote Objects
magnet number 2 (star), the planet
Magnet number 3 (equalizer)
Magnet number 4 - the right sector of the complex of remote objects.
The body moves steadily towards. Directional effects are not prints system from equilibrium. From the application of force - displacement is obtained, a meeting shift we observe an increment of force by the magnet.
This scheme corresponds to the definitions of the Act Conservation of energy and is only possible from these schemes.
General conclusion on the topic:
Adopted on faith, a widespread point of view: that the components of forces gravity, are themselves the forces of attraction is not consistent, definitions Act Energy conservation because of what is physically wrong.
One of the conditions of equilibrium body in orbit, is the existence of mathematically expressible Borders existence * (ie, tolerance) in each individual point of the orbit (referring to the border from zero to a certain value). For orbits for set of points of equilibrium, such boundaries can arise only from constant exposure directed forces. For versions of gravity repulsive force action, we stated, have. Outwardly orbits have in the form of repulsive forces from the complex of remote objects, with inside of the orbit in the form of the force of repulsion from the body. Consequently, the boundaries of existence are not equal to zero and have some significance. In the case of the gravity attraction, in the absence of directed forces, the border any orbit initially equal to zero. So the tolerance for this condition equilibrium is also equal to zero. The boundaries of existence of such phenomena are zero. So this phenomenon is in principle perhaps.
Conclusion: The planetary system of forces of attraction impossible in principle.
Experiment confirmation impossibility contactless forms equilibrium (Even neorbitalnogo) Forces on attraction.
The vertical rod with a clearance of neutral, providing free course, place the two magnets (Two versions polar orientation).
Settling turn the magnet on the rod and changing its orientation, we can trace the interaction of version of the attraction, and Release of repulsion.
For repulsive: magnet number 1 sets out the bottom of the rod, magnet number 2 is omitted top.
When reaching a certain approximation, the magnet hangs (in the field) and no further progress.
Conclusion: stable equilibrium of forces of repulsion is achievable.
The effect of visibility, the experimentally achievable.
Next: Experiment for the attraction:
Magnet number 1 sets out the top of the rod magnet № 2 raise in a flexible connection.
When reaching a certain approximation, a magnet or rushes to the other magnet, or drops down and hangs on a flexible connection.
Conclusion: Sustainable balance of forces of attraction are not achievable.
What is both practical evidence - for all time of existence of human civilization none planetary system on the proven strength attraction or who have not built.
Experiment on stable orbit at the unstable equilibrium:
Experiment: Set magnet on a horizontal plane of the devils in the plane stable orbit.
For a steel ball of mass M, according to a given radius, forward desired speed. Run the ball in orbit.
We perform an experiment with all velocities, with all the estimations of friction.
Orbital motion not observed even in the short form.
Conclusion: The forces of attraction of stable equilibrium is not achievable even in the short form.
In this system does not create the forces stability ball on Cash-stable orbit.
Orbit maybe stable (in terms of equilibrium the body itself) only to repel.
And we have already demonstrated the experiment for the particular case of equilibrium (equilibrium point). A login built on the strength of attraction is no equilibrium in a single point, the sustainable equilibrium is not on the line (on the curve is the trajectory of the way).
It is no magnet katnut ball on polished glass, measure the drop in velocity, to calculate the terms on which the ball must descend from orbit. You can go to the experiments in a vacuum.
But the dynamics in principle, not the same. It just a few millimeters way.
The ball is no longer kept in the field of possible orbitsGoes out of it immediately and without options.
This is an example of planetary motion on the unstable equilibrium.
See at a glance - that the transition to another stable orbit is not implemented. And nor any movement on any orbit impossible.
Moon moves circular orbit.
According to the direct attraction of this is impossible as well as the orbit as a whole.
Experiment Glass - Magnet.
Horizontal arrange the glass 15 x15 cm
Shattered the magnet and its fragments (fragments magnet) will attempt to evenly distribute the glass.
Set the pieces of the magnet in the free area.
The result - one:
In the end, despite the friction of pieces of the magnet will "stick together".
For our universe (supposedly built on the attraction), this would mean:
snowballing process of macro-bodies.
That is, there would be no attraction to the planets, stars or anything.
An avalanche-like process of the Ecumenical collapse.
At the same time nor any other planetary systems, not even had time to be formed, not to mention everything else (life, etc.)
That is, under the version of the attraction of celestial mechanics would not be in principle.
Continuation. A part 2.